Other applications of FT-IR spectrometry

  • Fuel industry (Of great interest is the use of infrared spectroscopy to determine the quality of various products of oil refining, such as gasoline products, diesel products, kerosene.)

Of great interest is the use of infrared spectroscopy to determine the quality of various products of oil refining, such as gasoline products, diesel products, kerosene.

The determination of benzene in gasoline plays an important role in the automotive and aviation industries, since benzene and its reaction products are strong poison agents, and the presence of benzene leads to engine malfunction – GOST R 51930 (ASTM D 4053), ASTM D 6277, GOST R 52256 -2004(ASTM D 5845-95)

  • Pharmaceutical industry (Infrared Fourier spectrometers FSM are an effective analytical tool for studying the chemical composition and quality control of substances and finished medicinal forms)

Infrared Fourier spectrometers FSM are an effective analytical tool for the study of the chemical composition and quality control of substances and finished medicinal forms, which allows to solve the following problems:

–          Determination of the authenticity of substances according to the standard spectra of the Pharmacopoeia

–          Qualitative and quantitative analysis of starting materials and products of synthesis

–          Identification and quality control of raw materials

–          Quality control of finished medicinal forms.

Rapid identification of pharmaceuticals is carried out using the Genuine program using standard spectra of pharmaceutical preparations. For identification in the transmission mode, the sample to be examined should be compressed into a KBr tablet or prepared as a suspension in a liquid paraffin

The analysis is conducted in accordance with pharmaceutical articles.

  • Environmental control (The IR FTIR spectrometer FSM 1201, due to its advantages and high degree of automation of the measurement process, can be used as an effective monitoring tool for environmental monitoring, trace traces of hydrocarbon impurities)

Fourier spectrometer FSM 1201, thanks to its advantages and high degree of automation of the measurement process, can be used as an effective monitoring tool for environmental monitoring, traces of hydrocarbon impurities and determination of the mass concentration of hydrocarbons in water and soil by the intensity of absorption of methylene groups in the IR spectrum.

The main task of environmental control is to identify any changes in the quality of the natural environment and to maintain it at the established level. The quality of the environment is measured by scientifically based indicators established in state standards for various types of natural resources, natural objects and complexes.

Techniques and standards for the application of IR spectrometers for solving environmental problems:

ISO/TR 11046:94 Soil quality. Determination of mineral oil content. Methods using IR spectroscopy

GOST R 51797 Drinking water. Method for determination of the content of petroleum products

ASTMD 3414 The method of identification of oil extracted from water using IR spectrometry

PNDF Sewage water. Method for determination of petroleum products.

ASTM D 3921 Method for the determination of hydrocarbons of petroleum origin in water.

RD 31.28.52-79 Methods of physico-chemical control of working environments of ship equipment. Petroleum products in water.

Exhaust. Methodology of NAK Azot JSC. Determination of nitrogen oxides NO, NO2, N2O

To determine the mass concentration of petroleum products in water by the IR absorption spectrum (GOST R 51797), the software OilWatIR was developed.

  • Electronic industry ( the quality control of semiconductor wafers can be done with a tester of wafers made on the basis of the FTIR FSM 1201)

Quality control of semiconductor wafers can be carried out using a semiconductor wafer tester based on the FSM 1201 Fourier spectrometer. Using it, it is possible to carry out non-destructive measurements and control of such parameters of wafers and structures from single-crystal silicon as:

–          Impurity concentration of interstitial oxygen;

–          Impurity concentration of substitutional carbon;

–          Thickness of epitaxial layers of structures of type n-n+ and p-p+;

–         Concentration of phosphorus in the FSS, boron and phosphorus in the BFSS.

The following standards are applied for the control:

– SEMIMF 1188 Control of the concentration of interstitial oxygen in silicon

– SEMIMF 1391 Control of the concentration of substitution carbon in silicon

– SEMIMF 951 ontrol of radial inhomogeneity of interstitial oxygen

– SEMIMF 95 Thickness control of epitaxial layers of silicon in structures n-n+, p-p+

            For quality control of semiconductor wafers, software  SemiSpec. has been developed

  • Gas analysis (Gas analysis is a complex of measures to establish the qualitative and quantitative composition of gas mixtures.

Most gaseous substances have a characteristic absorption in the IR spectral region, which allows recording most gases, including oxides of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, methane, ammonia, vapors of organic solvents and many other substances. Liquid substances can be investigated by transferring them to the gas phase. The IR method does not allow detection of only inert gases and diatomic gases)

The main advantages of the IR method:

Universality and selectivity. The unique nature of the individual IR spectra of substances makes it possible to identify and quantify a wide range of gaseous substances on the same IR Fourier spectrometer.
Multicomponent analysis. Possibility to identify simultaneously 10-20 components of a complex mixture, and separately determine their content at concentrations that differ by 2-3 orders of magnitude.
High sensitivity. The use of a multi-pass gas cuvette with an optical path length of 5-10 m in combination with a high signal-to-noise ratio of the Fourier spectrometer makes it possible to detect impurities at the level of 10 5-10 4%.
Great dynamic range. The ability to determine the components of a gas mixture in a range of concentrations 10 4–100%.

Main applications:
– Analysis of gases in the chemical and petrochemical industry
– Natural gas and gas industry products
– Control of toxic gases in semiconductor production
– Control of traces of impurities in gases of medical purpose
– Environmental control of atmospheric air, air of working area and emissions of industrial enterprises.

  • Chemistry of Polymers (Composition of polymers. Synthetic rubbers: composition, structural characteristics. Analysis of modifying additives: plasticizers, antioxidants. IR spectroscopy is widely used in the polymer industry for many applications, including for the analysis and description of polymers. The IR spectrum of polymers makes it possible to understand at the molecular level the orientation and structure of polymer chains. IR Fourier spectroscopy is the simplest and most informative way of obtaining spectra of polymers)

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